Three major periods have shaped the Vietnamese identity:

The origins of the nation

After the prehistoric and protohistoric periods (Hoa Binh, Bac Son and Dong Son), From the protohistory to the Christian era, a culture of Indonesian type characterized by the different elements below developed.

Remnants of a Southern Seas Culture

Area of ​​influence: Pre-Aryan India, Indonesia, Indochina, South China. Blackened teeth (dental surface mordance by a mixture of stick lack, lemon juice and rice alcohol). On the red teeth, application of a cinnamon complex with cinnamon flavored with clove and badiane. Tattooing, Betel, Cajeput, Aréquier, House on stilts, Bronze drum, Waterfest, Noria, Sarbacane, Chicken, Fighting cock, Peacock, Pagne, Mulberry, Rouet, Gear of cotton Using a double cylinder, Pig breeding ...

From the seventh century BC to the beginnings of the Christian era, the first founding kingdoms of the Vietnam nation emerged with their mythical kings, Long Quan Lake and Hung Kings for the Kingdom of Van Lang, then An Duong Vuong ( King Thuc) for the kingdom of Au Lac. This founding period, which will see the dominant tribe of the Giao Chi emerge (presumably the old name of the Kinh), will last until the defeat of the Trung Sisters and the lasting establishment of the Chinese domination.

The proto-viet period is a period of ten centuries where alternate threat, Chinese occupation then independence and birth of dynasties sometimes brief. The threat will come mainly from China, so from the North, it is the heroic period with its great generals like Ngo Qyen or Tran Hung Dao. In the fourth century Indonesian-type populations occupying the central coastal regions were Hindus and founded the Champa.

During this long period, the people will be absorbed by Chinese techniques, especially with regard to flooded rice cultivation. The influence of the Middle Kingdom will also be felt in culture and society will be governed according to the principles of Confucianism.

The Chinese culture of flooded rice, dikes and waterborne transport served as a model for those populations enclosed in the protectorate of the Middle Empire which poured out its administration system, its writing, its culture (And in particular the house on one level) and its religions.

The Viet period incarnated in its dynasties, its poetry, its theater until our days.

The key word in the history of Vietnam is the Nam Tien (the march towards the South), which will be to the detriment of the neighbors Chams then Khmeres. Moreover, with comparable effects, the majority of the Thai populations progressed along an axis North / South-West occupying the valley bottoms from Yunnan and Khouang Xi to present-day Thailand through North and North West Vietnam and Laos and Burma, destroying, enslaving or driving back to uncultivated heights Indonesian populations having preceded them in these places.

The country will gradually take shape to take its definitive outlines in the nineteenth century under the Nguyen dynasty.

The Chinese threat is still there. And the extension of the country towards the South triggers the hostilities with the southern neighbors, the Chams then the Khmer ones. Think that Vietnam's territory of origin is only the Red River Delta. This development towards the South will also cause many difficulties in its administration as well as many wills of emancipation on the part of the populations of origin that of that of feudal ones wanting to carve a kingdom. It was then that the lords of Hue became more and more important, until the beginning of the XIXth century which will see this city become the royal capital of the country to the detriment of Hanoi. This situation lasted until the French colonization understood.

The French were officially present before the colonization. Cardinal Pigneau de Béhaine, preceptor of the future King Gia Long, was accompanied by "advisers", notably military (they were given the particulars "à la Vauban" of the citadel in Hué). In fact, colonization was at first a kind of "go-to", because the initial exploratory missions had the main purpose of penetrating that part of the subcontinent so as to reach the heart of China before the English. The Doudart de Lagrée expedition was, from this point of view, a failure.

This French presence will last less than one hundred years. Independence of Vietnam will be born from the end of the Second World War. The Vietnam War will be one of the consequences of the confrontation of the two blocs during the Cold War and will end in 1975 with the reunification of the country.

After being closed from 1975 to 1988, once the problem of the occupation of Cambodia was resolved, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam opened to the world.

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